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BY EEV. BASEL Bear Friends, — The sole object of this publication is, to call the attention of all you my friends and countiymen, to the study and collection of our history, and to create a basis for a future more complete history of the Gold Coast. A history is the methodical narration of events in the order in which they successively occurred, exhibiting- the origin and progress, the causes and effects, and the auxiliaries and tendencies of that which has occurred in connection with a nation.

It is, as it were, the speculum and meas- ure-tape of that nation, showing its true shape and stature. Hence a nation not possessing a history has no true representation of all the stages of its development, whether it is in a state of progress or in a state of retrogression. In the place of a written history, tradition, which from antiquity was a natural source of history, was kept and trans- mitted regularly by our ancestors to their children in their days.

It was not, of course, in uniform theory, but existed and exercised its in- fluence in the physical and mental powers of our people. This impor- tant custom of a nation — which our forefathers felt obliged to pre- serve and transmit from one generation to another, so as to enable us to compare our times with theirs — has, since the dawn of education, been gradually neglected and forgotten. Since then it has been the good fortune of the Gold Coast to possess Online sex chat Amanforo men of powerful mind, who I am sure were well qualified to collect the traditions of their forefathers as a basis for a future history of the Gold Coast.

But unfortunately such collections have not been preserved by their suc- cessors, but have been left to the memories of the uneducated commu- nity. Such a work as writing- a history of the Gold Coast would not have been difficult for such of our brethren as the late lamented Eev. William Hansen, and Charles Bannerman, and some others in Fante; they possessed the mental powers which would have enabled them to do it successfully. Unfortunately, however, these lights on the Gold Coast were carried away by death in the prime of life.

Un- less a foreigner writes what he witnesses personally, his statements will be comparatively worthless, as it is the case with several s of the Gold Coast already published. Hence it is most desirable that a history of the Gold Coast and its people should be written by one who has not only studied, but has had the privilege of initiation into the history of its former inhabitants and writes with true native patriotism. It is no egotism when I say 1 have had the privilege of being ini- tiated into, and also of possessing a love for, the history of my country.

My ancestors on the father's and mother's side belonged to the families of national ofliciating high priests in Akra and Christiansborg. And I should have become a priest either of Nai at Akra or Klote at Chris- tiansborg, if I had not been born a mulatto and become a Christian. My worthy grandmother Okakg Asase, as in duty bound to lier chil- dren and grandchildren, used to relate the traditions of the country to her people when they sat around her in the evenings.

My education and calling separated me from home, and prevented me from complet- ing the series of these lessons in native tradition. However in I felt a craving to spend some days with her, so as to complete it; but she died whilst I was absent from home in Krobo as a catechist. Four years later Rev. Aldinger asked me to collect traditions for him; but the old lady was dead, and the old people, though possessing a vast store of tradition, refrained from imparting it; so I obtained Online sex chat Amanforo little for him.

This treatment of the then old people stirred up a greater desire in me to use all available means in my power to collect traditions. From more than two hundred persons of both sexes 1 ol tained what know- ledge of the subject I now possess.

These traditions I have carefully compared in order to arrive at the truth. The result I now humbly present to the public, to whom I have to suggest a few remarks. If a nation's history is the nation's speculum and measure-tape, then it brings the past of that nation to its own view, so that the past may be compared with the present to see whether progress or retrogression is in operation; and also as a means of judging our nation by others, so that we may gather instruction for our future guidance.

When such is not the case with a nation, no hope can Online sex chat Amanforo entertained for better prospects. Keeping this in mind, we shall more clearly understand the necessity of collecting materials for a complete history of the Gold Coast from evei-y source within our reach. V The title chosen for this publication, "History of the Gold Coast and Asante" may be deemed to promise more than I was actually able to give.

For, from want of reliable information, the principal and impor- tant portion of the Gold Coast, Fante, the land of history, the land of poetry and enlightenment and semi-civilization, could not be treated fi-om its origin. Still I venture to have the book so named in the hope that our brethren and friends on the Gold Coast, both Native and Eu- ropean, may possess better sources of information for a history of the Gold Coast, and may, laying aside all prejudice, be induced to unite to bring the history of the GJold Coast to perfection.

I deem Online sex chat Amanforo impossible for one man unaided to carry Online sex chat Amanforo such an important work to perfection. Having described the principal object I have in view in writing this work as a desire to produce a complete history of the Gold Coast, I trust, my friends in Fante, or elsewhere, will co-operate with me in re- vising, if need be, what I have written, and in assisting me by furnish- ing additional information, in order that a subsequent edition may be more complete.

Another important snbject, besides that of Fante etc. I may also state briefly my object in connecting the history of Asante with that of the Gold Coast. There must be a starting-point in writing a history of a nation. If the kingdom of Akra, which appears to have been the first established on the Gold Coast, could have continued and absorbed that of Fante, or been absorbed by the latter, I might have easily obtained the starting-point. But both kingdoms having failed and the kingdom of Asante having become the leading and ruling power, a Gold Coast history would not be complete without the history of Asante, as the histories of both countries are so interwoven.

Thus my present work carries us from the origin of the diflPerent tribes to the year i. If, in conjunction with the united efforts of all the educated commu- nity of the country and those foreigners who take a special interest in us, we could collect materials of those dark days to complete this pio- neer work, that from up to the present time, some thirty years only, could be easily obtained, as there is sufficient matter already in store for us.

VI Preface. Regarding dates and historical facts, I have made references to such works as I could lay hand upon. The records of the Colonial 4overn- nient would have furnished nie with correct dates and substantial infor- mations, but I was unable to obtain access to them. I am, however, highly thankful to the Rev. Steiner for the translation of some s from the following works in German, viz. Romer, a Danish merchant in Christiansborg from — 43, published at Copenhagen in ; Dr.

Isert, Copenhagen ; H. Dapper's Africa. The short history of the Bremen Mission was kindly given me by the Rev. And lastly, I am thankful to the Rev. Parker and the Rev. John H. Davies M. I have, at the same time, to crave indulgence from all the English readers of my work for my poor English and for using Dr. Lepsius' Standard Alphabet in writing the African names. For I have found out that the English Alphabet could never fully express the names, and as I have the full conviction that the endeavours of the Basel German missionaries to cultivate our language and to give us a litera- ture of our own have been successful, and this work is intended as a contribution towards that, ray Online sex chat Amanforo friends will, in the long run, find that I have adopted the best mode in doing so.

For the Tshi Twi names I have used gy instead of dsh- And in conclusion I must beg you, my native friends, not to despise this work coming from one of your own brethren, but let it rather en- courage you to assist me by your kind informations and co-operation, so as to get our own history complete. To interest you chiefly I col- lected so many names of our forefathers, who defended our country from the yoke of Asante, trusting that every one of you will be pleased to tiud his grandfather's name in the lists.

May our dear Lord bless this poor means I now offer to the public for the improvement of ourselves as well as our country! I am yours very truly C. Prefatory Remarks of the author's friend who carried the work through the press. The author had some difficulty in getting his Avork printed, as this could not be done on the Gold Coast. His endeavours to have it printed in England failed, and after some correspondence with his friends in Basel, a German printer was entrusted with it, who had printed numer- ous books and papers in the Tshi or Asante and in the Ga or Akra languages for the Basel Mission and the British and Foreign Bible So- ciety.

The undered, being a fellow-labourer in the Basel Mission of the author and his personal friend, having also been the chief in- strument for preparing works in the Tshi language and carrying them through the press, as well as the publications in Ga sinceunder- took to render similar service for the present work. Some of the au- thor's friends, taking a lively interest in the publication, found that the English manuscript wanted some revision before it went to the press. The delicate task would have been to difficult for the undered, be- ing himself neither born nor educated among English-speaking peo- ple; but he had the good luck to secure the services of a gentleman, who has been teaching English in Basel and in India about 33 years and possesses the advantage of speaking that language as his mother- tongue.

Unibrtunately the duties of his vocation left him but very little time for this work, which he carried on, however, with great self-de- votion and managed at last to complete. If the book were to see an- other edition arranged in strict chronological order and with additional to. After him the undered finally prepared the manuscript for the press, ciomparing it at the same time with the Ga translation of the first half of the work, which had been communicated to him by the author in order to be printed sxxccessively in a periodical " Christian Reporter for the Natives of the Gold Coast speaking the Ga or Akra language.

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Yet even after or partly on of these threefold en- deavours to do justice to the English language, a genuine English reader may still find slight inaccuracies or inconsistencies e. The of capital letters used by the author was partly reduced by the revisors. Titles before English names are treated as in English, not so before African names, e.

Captain Laing, king Taki. The way of writing the native names in English books has hitherto been very fluctuating and unsatisfactory, although it is very simple and plain in the vernaculars. In a circular from the Secretary of State called attention to the correct spelling of proper names, and from the Assistant Colonial Secretary's Office at Lagos a book was given out for the use of the Courts, prescribing "the correct spelling" of about places in or adjacent to the Gold Coast Protectorate.

But of these names often 2 and 3 for the same place, e. Certain principles were laid down inwhen a "System of Orthography for native names of places'' to be used in official publications was issued from the Intelli- gence Branch, according to which vowels are pronounced as in Italian, and consonants as in English, the letters c, q, and x being excluded. Inand authorities under the Governments Online sex chat Amanforo France, Germany and the United States accepted in many points the principles of that English system and enlarged it, so that an international alpha- bet for geographical names was in view, but a tborough union has not yet taken place.

The first rule of that English system says : " No change will be made in the orthography of foreign names in countries which use Roman letters: thus Spanish, Dutch etc. Lepsius' Stan- dard Alphabet LondonMr. Reindorf was right in using the ver- nacular orthography, although with some adaptation to that international alphabet which uses sh for s Online sex chat Amanforo Ga and tsh tor ts Eng. We write Asante, and not "Ashanti"', because the simple sound of English sh does not exist in the language and no true Asante or Fante- X Pi-ef;itory Remarks.

The third rule of the above mentioned official "System of Orthography" says, "The true sound of the word as locally pro- nounced will be taken as the basis of the spelling. Bowdich and his interpreter, an Akra- man who went with him to Kumase inThe Akras, having a predilection for "sh" especially before "e and i", pronounce the origi- nal form "Asiante" indeed "Ashanti", whereas the Asantes themselves have suppressed the short "i" but retained the "s". The stress is laid on the middle syllable, although it has the low tone; the final short vowel is not a real "i", but a "narrow e" which is often mistaken for "i", and has the high tone: Asante.

The four last letters are pro- nounced as in the Italian name "Dante". We also write Akra as many English writers did and doand not Ac- cra, because the "c" is excluded from the spelling of African names, the doubling of consonants is against a fundamental law of most Negro languages, and the stress lies on the last syllal le. Since all the other native names are treated uni- formly, it would be awkward to retain Ashantee, 'oomassie, Accra, Yariba etc. The spelling and explanation of African names Online sex chat Amanforo other words are the very weakest points in Bowdich's excellent book.

As to the merits of the present work, it will speak for itself to any- one who will take the time and trouble of perusing it, overlooking mi- nor defects in form and style. A few remarks, however, may be al- lowed here. Whatever imperfections the critical eye of an English reader may find in the book with regard to outward things or the arrangement of the contents or the author's knowledge and opinion concerning the re- mote antiquity etc.

It is the first comprehensive history of an important part of Africa written by a na- tive and from the standpoint of a native. For the author's countrymen everything in the l Ook, also the many names, will be of some value. But for Europeans too, especially for English statesmen, authorities and officials that have to do with the Gold Coast, also for missionaries, his- torians, ethnologists, psychologists, philologists, and even geographers on of the geographical names it will afford valuable matter.

XI ropeaiis, among them one or two under the title "A history of the C4olcl Coast. Many parts of the book will excite the interest and sympathy or some- times antipathy of the common reader. One thing among others is re- markable: the extent to which an illiterate people can preserve so many facts and names of persons of its past history, by no other means but the retentive memory and oral tradition, partly supported by certain popular songs referring to the facts.

This feature in the life of illit- erate people may also contribute to remove or abate the doubts concern- ing the reliability of other records of ancient and modern nations simi- larly circumstanced as the African peoples. But the superstitions, cruelties, horrors and atrocities in the private and public life ot heathenish nations are also brought to view in too many instances of this History of the Gold Coast, and this ought to impress natives and Europeans with thankfulness for the changes al- ready effected and with the conviction of the necessity of continuing and increasing every effort to bring the various tribes more and more under the influence of true Christian religion and civilization.

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The history of the Christian Missions on the Gold Coast in chapter XIX dwells perhaps too much on the beginnings and does not give much on the progress of the work, but mentions some of their and statistics down to the year In the increase of church mem- bers of the Basel Mission was larger than ever before, nearly one thousand. The author certainly deserves warm acknowledgment for all his pains- taking in gathering the materials for his book. May the work he has accomplished stir up many dormant faculties in his African countrymen, to give him every support towards the continuation of his historical re- searches and the "completion" of the History of the Gold Coast so much desired by him, and may it promote the mutual understanding of Eu- ropeans and Natives especially concerning that which is needful for the elevation and true civilization of the inhabitants Online sex chat Amanforo the Gold Coast.

Schorndorf, June Chapter I. A short desci'iption of the Gold Coast. Komer's reference to the kingdom of Benin. Detinition of Gfi; its boundary; the first powerful kingdom formed by the Akras on the coast. Emigration and settlements of the 1'shi tribes in the interior. About — Of the kingdoms of Akwamu and Akem. About — 58 Chapter VI.

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